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太阳热发电技术原理

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发表于 2007-11-9 14:28:13 |显示全部楼层
Concentrating solar power plants produce electric power by converting the sun's energy into high-temperature heat using various mirror configurations. The heat is then channelled through a conventional generator. The plants consist of two parts: one that collects solar energy and converts it to heat, and another that converts heat energy to electricity. 5 y# j8 s* r0 Y& ~9 w

9 a+ Y2 ^  L- y2 b8 _Concentrating solar power systems can be sized for village power (10 kilowatts) or grid-connected applications (up to 100 megawatts). Some systems use thermal storage during cloudy periods or at night. Others can be combined with natural gas and the resulting hybrid power plants provide high-value, dispatchable power. These attributes, along with world record solar-to-electric conversion efficiencies, make concentrating solar power an attractive renewable energy option in the Southwest and other sunbelt regions worldwide. There are four CSP technologies being promoted internationally. For each of these, there exists various design variations or different configurations. The amount of power generated by a concentrating solar power plant depends on the amount of direct sunlight. Like concentrating photovoltaic concentrators, these technologies use only direct-beam sunlight, rather than diffuse solar radiation.
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Parabolic Trough Systems:
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The sun's energy is concentrated by parabolically curved, trough-shaped reflectors onto a receiver pipe running along the inside of the curved surface. This energy heats oil flowing through the pipe, and the heat energy is then used to generate electricity in a conventional steam generator.  X" x6 ^8 C. S- m- {

5 J0 o) G1 i* a# V# |A collector field comprises many troughs in parallel rows aligned on a north-south axis. This configuration enables the single-axis troughs to track the sun from east to west during the day to ensure that the sun is continuously focused on the receiver pipes. Individual trough systems currently can generate about 80 megawatts of electricity.) ~6 R5 z& v- F. z, \' ?
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Trough designs can incorporate thermal storage—setting aside the heat transfer fluid in its hot phase—allowing for electricity generation several hours into the evening. Currently, all parabolic trough plants are "hybrids," meaning they use fossil fuel to supplement the solar output during periods of low solar radiation. Typically a natural gas-fired heat or a gas steam boiler/reheater is used; troughs also can be integrated with existing coal-fired plants./ X$ K$ s" c& W- D  @- C

7 W  d9 C4 Z. W7 F% S9 i7 MAnother option under investigation is the approximation of the parabolic troughs by segmented mirrors according to the principle of Fresnel.
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A power tower converts sunshine into clean electricity for the world’s electricity grids. The technology utilizes many large, sun-tracking mirrors (heliostats) to focus sunlight on a receiver at the top of a tower. A heat transfer fluid heated in the receiver is used to generate steam, which, in turn, is used in a conventional turbine-generator to produce electricity.0 K- \6 h( P, l8 j
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Early power towers (such as the Solar One plant) utilized steam as the heat transfer fluid; current US designs (including Solar Two, pictured) utilize molten nitrate salt because of its superior heat transfer and energy storage capabilities. Current European designs use air as heat transfer medium because of its high temperature and its good handability.
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( c: ?1 o: u# N9 C1 oIndividual commercial plants will be sized to produce anywhere from 50 to 200 MW of electricity.
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4 ^+ N; n4 n; K6 `, G2 e% L* [Parablic Dish Systems:1 ^- U5 u: o. Q4 d& W9 @# o( e

7 ~( g8 ~& }' L$ s/ h; jParabolic dish systems consist of a parabolic-shaped point focus concentrator in the form of a dish that reflects solar radiation onto a receiver mounted at the focal point. These concentrators are mounted on a structure with a two-axis tracking system to follow the sun. The collected heat is typically utilized directly by a heat engine mounted on the receiver moving with the dish structure. Stirling and Brayton cycle engines are currently favored for power conversion. Projects of modular systems have been realized with total capacities up to 5 MWe. The modules have maximum sizes of 50 kWe and have achieved peak efficiencies up to 30% net.
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哪位兄弟精通英文的?麻烦翻译一下

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发表于 2007-11-10 10:56:47 |显示全部楼层
集中太阳的力量厂藉由把太阳的能源转换成使用各种不同的镜子结构的高温度热生产电力。 热然后被引导过一个传统的产生器。 植物有二个部份:一个哪一收集太阳能,而且转换它加热, 和皈依者加热对电力的能源的另外一。 1 }1 ^" l8 }1 b0 C3 ^' O
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集中太阳的力量制度能为村庄力量 (10个千瓦) 或格子连接的申请 (达 100个百万瓦) 被按规定尺寸制作。 一些系统在多云的期数期间或在晚上使用热的储藏。 其它能被和天然气结合,而且产生的混合发电厂提供高价值,可派遣的力量。 这些属性,连同世界一起记录太阳至电的转变效率, 创下在全世界集中太阳的力量吸引人的可重新开始的能源选项在西南的和其他的 sunbelt 区域。 有四种 CSP 技术国际性地被促进。 为每个这些, 在那里存在各种不同的设计变化或不同的结构。 一集中太阳的发电厂的被产生的力量的数量仰赖直接日光的数量。 喜欢集中光电伏打浓缩器,这些技术使用只有直接-光线日光 , 并非漫射太阳的放射线。
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抛物线的木钵系统:
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太阳的能源被抛物线地弯被集中, 在沿着被弯的表面的内部跑的一个接收器管之上的木钵形的反射镜。 这能源热涂油水于流动过管,而且热能源然后用来在一个传统的蒸气产生器中产生电力。
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. H; F1 M5 j$ R' H$ Y, z  W一个搜集家领域包含在一个北方-南的轴上被排列的平行的排的许多木钵。 这一个结构使单一轴木钵能够在白天追踪从东方到西方的太阳确定太阳不断地把重心集中在接收器管。 个别的木钵系统现在能产生电力的大约 80个百万瓦。
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木钵设计能将热的设定储藏的旁白热移动液体纳入它的热对于电力世代好几个小时是允许状态的进入晚上之内。 现在,所有的抛物线的木钵厂是他们使用化石燃料在低太阳的放射线的期数期间补充太阳能的 "混血儿 ," 意义。 典型地天然气-点燃热或一个瓦斯蒸气煮器/重热器被用; 木钵也能与存在煤开除的植物整合。  H" ?' l: v6 s: K: h: I
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依照夫累×尔的原则,在调查之下的另外选项是分割的镜子抛物线木钵的近似值。
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一个力量塔为世界的电力格子把阳光转换成干净的电力。 技术利用多数大又追踪太阳的镜子 (日光反射装置) 在塔的顶端将日光集中在一个接收器。 在接收器被加热的热移动液体用来产生蒸气, 这,依次,被用于一个传统的涡轮-产生器生产电力。
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) c. z5 f4 M3 J, v早的力量塔 (如此的当做一个太阳的植物) 利用了如热移动液体的蒸气; 现在的美国设计 (包括太阳的二, 画) 利用融化硝酸盐含盐的甜因为它的长者加热移动和能源储藏能力。 现在的欧洲设计以空气作为热移动媒体因为它的高温度和它的好 handability。
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4 {0 u& Z0 ?) R: {# r8 Z个别的商业植物将会被按规定尺寸制作生产来自电力的 50 到 200 MW 的任何地方。
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6 X. J! ^$ x2 M3 m3 JParablic 盘子系统:
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抛物线的盘子系统有一抛物线的-以在被展开在焦点的点的一个接收器之上反映太阳的放射线的盘子的形式成形点焦点浓缩器。 这些浓缩器被装在和一个二轴的追踪系统的结构上跟随太阳。 收集成的热直接地典型地被利用被被展开在以盘子结构移动的接收器上的一个热引擎。 斯特林和 Brayton 周期引擎现在为力量转变被偏爱。 模组系统的计画已经与完全的达 5 MWe 的能力一起了解。 组件有 50 kWe 的最大大小和已经达成最高的效率决定于 30% 网。
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发表于 2007-11-20 13:34:13 |显示全部楼层

翻译指正

感谢suncon的热情,不过译文应该是软件翻译过来的。专业词汇几乎都翻译的不准确。
% `- d' r' o6 R- M5 p$ ]" h简单来说,plant是电站不是植物。dish是碟式系统,不是盘子。
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发表于 2007-11-20 13:40:47 |显示全部楼层

1

Concentrating solar power plants produce electric power by converting the sun's energy into high-temperature heat using various mirror configurations. The heat is then channelled through a conventional generator. The plants consist of two parts: one that collects solar energy and converts it to heat, and another that converts heat energy to electricity.
3 b* y% k1 @/ r' f聚焦式太阳能电站发电,是通过各种面型的反射镜,将太阳能转化成高温热。这些高温热随后被传输给常规的发电机。这类的电站主要包括2部分:1是将太阳能收集和转换成热能,第2部分是将热能转换成电能。
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太阳能电池片

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    发表于 2007-11-21 13:06:40 |显示全部楼层
    呵呵,说得对。专业人士来了。
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    发表于 2007-11-29 16:49:44 |显示全部楼层
    厉害,呵呵;憨笑
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